Significant accounting policies


Audited by PwC

Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of Novozymes A/S (the parent company) and all the companies in which the Group owns more than 50% of the voting rights or otherwise has control or similar de facto control (subsidiaries), as well as joint ventures. The consolidated financial statements are based on the financial statements for the parent company and for the subsidiaries, and are prepared by combining items of a uniform nature and subsequently eliminating intercompany transactions, internal stockholdings and balances, and unrealized intercompany profits and losses. All the financial statements used for consolidation are prepared in accordance with the Group’s accounting policies.

The Group’s holdings in joint ventures regarded as jointly controlled entities are consolidated using the proportionate consolidation method by including its proportional share of their assets, liabilities, revenue, and costs line by line.

Business combinations

On acquisition of new companies, the assets, liabilities, and contingent liabilities of each new company are recognized at fair value at the time of acquisition. Goodwill is adjusted for changes in the purchase price after acquisition and changes in the fair value of the acquired identifiable assets, liabilities, and contingent liabilities since the acquisition date until 12 months afterward. Newly acquired companies are recognized as from the date of acquisition, and no adjustment is made to comparative figures. Goodwill is allocated to business activities in order to test for impairment.

Translation of foreign currencies

The consolidated financial statements are presented in Danish kroner (DKK). Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date. Financial statements of foreign subsidiaries are translated into Danish kroner at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date for assets and liabilities, and at average exchange rates for income statement items.

Goodwill arising on the acquisition of new companies is treated as an asset belonging to the new foreign subsidiaries and translated into Danish kroner at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date.

Realized and unrealized foreign exchange gains and losses are recognized under Financial income or Financial costs, with the exception of unrealized gains and losses relating to hedging of future cash flows, which are recognized in Other comprehensive income. The following exchange rate differences are also recognized in Other comprehensive income, translated at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date:

  • Translation of foreign subsidiaries’ net assets at the beginning of the year
  • Translation of foreign subsidiaries’ income statements from average exchange rates to the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date
  • Translation of long-term intercompany balances, which are considered to be an addition to net assets in subsidiaries
  • Fair value adjustment of financial liabilities that qualify for hedging of net assets in foreign subsidiaries

Stock-based payment

The Group’s employees are covered by stock option programs comprising equity-settled and cash-settled programs.

The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of stock options is computed using the value of the granted stock options. The fair value of the granted stock options is calculated using the Black–Scholes model.

The fair value of stock-based payment on the grant date is recognized as an employee cost over the period in which the stock options are vested. In measuring the fair value, account is taken of the number of employees expected to gain entitlement to the options as well as the number of options the employees are expected to gain. This estimate is adjusted at the end of each period such that only the number of options to which employees are entitled, or expected to be entitled, is recognized.

The value of equity-settled programs is offset against Shareholders’ equity. The value of cash-settled programs, which are offset against Other payables, is adjusted to fair value at the end of each period, and the subsequent adjustment in fair value is recognized in the income statement under Financial income or Financial costs.

Government grants

Government grants received relating to research and development costs are recognized under Other operating income, net, based on the percentage completion of the projects. Grants received relating to investments in property, plant and equipment are offset against the cost price of the eligible assets.

Segment information

The consolidated financial statements provide information on the Group’s operating segments in a manner that is consistent with the internal reporting that goes to the Board of Directors and Executive Management. In addition, information is provided on geographical allocation.

Leases

Operating lease costs are recognized in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease. Liabilities relating to non-cancelable contracts are specified in the Notes.

Key figures

Key figures are mainly prepared in accordance with the "Recommendations and Key Figures 2005" of the Danish Society of Financial Analysts, although certain key figures are adapted to the Novozymes Group.

Revenue

Revenue covers sales of goods and services for the year less goods returned, and volume and cash discounts. Sales are recognized at the time of risk transfer relating to the goods sold, provided that the revenue can be measured on a reliable basis and is expected to be received.

The Group has entered into few agreements where the other contracting party undertakes sales to third parties and the profit is distributed between the Group and the other contracting party on the basis of a predetermined formula. Sales are recognized using information on the other contracting party’s realized sales, and a liability is recognized for the distribution of the profit, which is calculated and settled with final effect once a year.

The Group has entered into commission agreements where agents undertake sales to third parties in return for commission on realized sales. These sales are recognized when they are realized. A liability is recognized when it is permitted for goods to be returned and this is likely.

Research and development costs

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development costs pertaining to ongoing optimization of production processes for existing products, or to development of new products, where lack of approval by the authorities, approval by customers, and other uncertainties mean the development costs do not fulfill the criteria for recognition in the balance sheet, are expensed as incurred.

Other operating income, net

Other operating income, net, comprises grants from public authorities and customers for research projects and collaborations, and income, net, of a secondary nature in relation to the main activities in the Group. This item also includes non-recurring income items, net, in respect of damages, outlicensing, etc.

Tax

Corporation tax, comprising the current tax liability, change in deferred tax for the year, and possible adjustments relating to previous years, is recognized in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized either in Other comprehensive income or directly in Shareholders’ equity. Deferred tax is measured using the balance-sheet liability method and comprises all temporary differences between the accounting and tax values of assets and liabilities. No deferred tax is recognized for goodwill, unless amortization of goodwill for tax purposes is allowed. Deferred tax is measured and recognized to cover retaxation of losses in jointly taxed foreign subsidiaries if this is expected to be realized on the divestment of stock or when recapture of tax losses becomes applicable. The tax value of tax-loss carry-forwards is included in the calculation of deferred tax to the extent that the tax losses can be expected to be utilized in the future.

Deferred tax is measured according to current tax rules and at the tax rate expected to be in force on elimination of the temporary differences. Changes in deferred tax due to tax rate changes are recognized in the income statement, except to the extent that they relate to items recognized either in Other comprehensive income or directly in Shareholders’ equity.

Novozymes A/S and its Danish subsidiaries are jointly taxed with the Danish companies in the Novo A/S Group. The tax for the individual companies is allocated in full on the basis of the expected taxable income.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses.

Costs associated with large IT projects for the development of software for internal use are capitalized if they are incurred with a view to developing new and improved systems. Amortization is based on the straight-line method over the expected useful lives of the assets, as follows:

  • Completed IT development projects are amortized over the useful life. Booked IT development assets are amortized over 3–5 years
  • Acquired patents, licenses, and know-how are amortized over their useful lives. Patents are amortized over their useful lives, normally identical to the patent period, and licenses are amortized over the agreement period. Booked patents, licenses, and know-how are amortized over 7–20 years

Some assets are amortized over a shorter period.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Borrowing costs in respect of construction of major assets are capitalized.

Depreciation is based on the straight-line method over the expected useful lives of the assets, as follows:

  • Buildings: 12–50 years
  • Plant: 5–16 years
  • Other equipment: 3–16 years

The assets’ residual value and useful life are reviewed on an annual basis, and adjusted if necessary at each balance sheet date.

Gains and losses on the sale or disposal of assets are recognized in the income statement under the same functions as the associated depreciation charges.

Impairment of intangible assets and property, plant and equipment 

Intangible assets, and property, plant and equipment are reviewed for impairment losses when there is an indication that the assets have diminished in value beyond the level of normal amortization or depreciation. Goodwill is also subject to impairment testing each year, and when there is an indication that the assets have become impaired.

An impairment loss resulting from an asset having diminished in value beyond the level of normal amortization or depreciation is recognized at the amount by which the cost exceeds its recoverable amount.

Inventories

Inventories are measured at cost determined on a first-in first-out basis or net realizable value where this is lower.

The cost of Work in progress and Finished goods comprises direct production costs such as raw materials and consumables, energy, and labor directly attributable to production, and indirect production costs such as employee costs, and maintenance and depreciation of plant, etc.

If the expected selling price less any completion costs and costs to execute sales (net realizable value) of inventories is lower than the cost, the inventories are written down to net realizable value.

Cash at bank and in hand

Cash at bank and in hand comprises cash balances and funds held at financial institutions.

Financial assets and liabilities

The Novozymes Group categorizes financial assets and liabilities as follows: Financial assets/liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, Loans and receivables, Hedge accounting, Available-for-sale financial assets, and Financial liabilities.

Financial assets/liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss is the part of derivatives that cannot be designated as hedge accounting, e.g., accrued interest on currency swaps and time value of currency options. Loans and receivables are non-derivatives with fixed or determinable payments that are not listed on an active market. Loans and receivables are entered in the balance sheet under the following items: Trade receivables, Other receivables, and Cash at bank and in hand. The items are measured at amortized cost or net realizable value equivalent to nominal value less allowances for doubtful receivables, whichever is lower.

Hedge accounting consists of positive and negative fair values of derivatives, which are itemized in the balance sheet under Other financial assets and Other financial liabilities respectively.

Derivatives used to hedge assets and liabilities are measured at fair value on the balance sheet date, and value adjustments are recognized as Financial income or Financial costs.

Derivatives used to hedge future cash flows are measured at fair value on the balance sheet date, and value adjustments are recognized in Other comprehensive income.

Derivatives used to hedge net investments in foreign subsidiaries are measured at fair value, and value adjustments are recognized in Other comprehensive income.

Income and costs relating to cash flow hedges and hedging of net investments in subsidiaries are transferred from Other comprehensive income on realization of the hedged item and are recognized as Financial income or Financial costs.

Derivatives are recognized on the settlement date, while other financial instruments are recognized on the transaction date.

Available-for-sale financial assets is the remaining financial assets not included in the above categories. Available-for-sale financial assets are itemized in the balance sheet as Other financial assets and are measured at fair value (share price) on the balance sheet date. Unrealized fair value adjustments are recognized in Other comprehensive income. Value adjustments are transferred from Other comprehensive income to Financial income or Financial costs when realized. Write-offs are recognized as Financial costs.

Financial liabilities are entered in the balance sheet under the following items: Other financial liabilities, Trade payables, and as part of Other payables.

Dividend

The dividend proposed for the financial year is shown under Retained earnings in the Statement of shareholders’ equity.

Treasury stock

The cost price and proceeds from the sale of treasury stock are recognized directly in Shareholders’ equity as a separate item. Among other things, the company’s holding of treasury stock is used to hedge employees’ exercise of granted stock options.

Provisions

Provisions are recognized where a legal or constructive obligation has been incurred as a result of past events, and it is probable it will lead to an outflow of financial resources. Provisions are measured at the present value of the expected expenditure required to settle the obligation.

Trade payables and Other payables

Trade payables and Other payables are measured at amortized cost.

Pension obligations and other long-term employee benefits

Costs relating to defined contribution plans are recognized in the income statement in the financial year to which they relate. 

Costs and liabilities relating to defined benefit plans are stated using the projected unit credit method. Liabilities for the major plans are calculated annually by an external actuary. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the income statement over the employees’ expected average remaining working life if these differences exceed 10% of either the present value of the liability or the fair value of the plan assets in the previous year, whichever is the higher. Pension assets can only be recognized to the extent that the Group is able to achieve future financial benefits in the form of refunds from the pension plan or a reduction in future benefits.

Costs relating to other long-term employee benefits are accrued over the employees’ expected average remaining working life.

Statement of cash flows and financial resources

The Statement of cash flows and financial resources for the Group, which is compiled using the indirect method, shows cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities, and the Group’s cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and end of the year.

Cash flow from operating activities comprises net profit adjusted for non-cash expenses, paid financial items, corporate tax paid, and change in working capital. Cash flow from investing activities comprises payments relating to the acquisition and sale of companies and minority stock, intangible assets, and property, plant and equipment.

Cash flow from financing activities comprises proceeds from borrowings, repayment of principal on interest-bearing debt, payment of dividends, proceeds from stock issues, and the purchase and sale of treasury stock and other securities.

Cash and cash equivalents comprises cash at bank and in hand less current bank loans due on demand. Financial resources comprises cash and cash equivalents plus undrawn committed credit facilities expiring in more than one year.

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